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DEVELOPMENT OF FOUR MAIN TYPES OF VACCINE

December 03 2020 at 10:32 PM by Biswajeet Sahoo


COVID-19  UPDATE-5

 

DEVELOPMENT OF FOUR MAIN TYPES OF VACCINE

 

Even before coronavirus broke out in 2019, pharmaceutical companies were working on designs and development for vaccines they could quickly adapt to a pandemic strain of virus. Their work paid off in some of the new Covid-19 vaccines being tested and prepared for rollout as illustrated below.

 

1.     mRNA VACCINE- Used by: Pfizer, Moderna. Doses: 2

 

mRNA vaccines are the newest approach. They use genetic material called messenger RNA, a kind of genetic software that instructs cells to make a piece of the coronavirus spike protein. That will get the attention of the immune system. The mRNA is coated in soft fatty lipids to protect it. Receiving an mRNA vacccine will not alter your DNA.

 

 

 

2.     VECTOR VACCINES: Used by: AstraZeneca, Janssen, Sputnik: Doses: 1-2

 

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Vector vaccines use another virus to carry in the genetic instructions to make the spike protein. For coronavirus, they all use adenoviruses, a type of common cold virus. They attach to cells and inject DNA that tells the cells to make coronavirus spike protein.

 

 

 

3.     PROTEIN SUBUNIT VACCINE Used by: Novavax, Sanofi.  Doses: 1

 

 

Protein subunit vaccines just get little pieces of the target virus circulating in the system for the immune system to find and recognize. Instead of using the human body as the vaccine factory, genetically engineered insect viruses are used to infect moths, whose cells then produce the pieces of the coronavirus spike protein. These are harvested and made into a vaccine.

 

 

 

 

4.     WHOLE, KILLED VACCINES: Used by: Sinovac. Doses: 1-2

 

Whole inactivated virus vaccines take longer to make because batches of the coronavirus must first be grown and then killed using a chemical or heat, and then made into a vaccine that can be injected to elicit an immune response.

Vector vaccines use another virus to carry in the genetic instructions to make the spike protein. For coronavirus, they all use adenoviruses, a type of common cold virus. They attach to cells and inject DNA that tells the cells to make coronavirus spike protein.

 


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