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December 13 2020 at 05:18 PM by Samikshya Joshi


 Hernia is an abnormal condition in which bulging of a part of an organ or the tissues through the wall that normally contains it. Hernia can be classified into different types depending on the region of the body in which they occur. An inguinal hernia is the most common type of hernia, often congenital, and occurs mostly in males. It is the protrusion of the contents of the abdomen through the inguinal canal in the myopectineal orifice. Inguinal hernias are found near the lower abdomen, both on the left and right side, and also as a bulge in the groin. Femoral hernia bulging occurs in the upper thigh. An umbilical hernia occurs in and around the naval region. It may be present from birth. An incisional hernia occurs in the area around the incision. A diaphragmatic hernia occurs when the stomach comes out into the chest cavity. Semilunar hernias occur in the Spieghel's semilunar line.

Causes of hernia

1. Obesity

2. Continuous cough due to smoking or exposure to pollutants.

3. Heavy weight lifting.

4. Chronic constipation and irregularity in the bowel.

5. Congenital (Inguinal hernia and Umbilical hernia).

6. Prostate inflammation.

7. Pressure in the abdomen.

8. Pregnancy.

9. Cystic fibrosis.

10. Improper nutrition.

11. Testicles not descended properly.

12. Accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity.

Symptoms of hernia

1. Bulging or protrusion of tissues that do not go back.

2. Tenderness of tissue.

3. Persistent pain and discomfort feeling.

4. Abdominal pain.

5. Chest pain.

6. Dyspnea.

7. Orthopnea.


8. Bloating.

9. Heartburn.

10. Belching.

11. Breathing difficulty.

12. Nausea and vomiting.

13. Bowel irregularity.

14. Difficulty in urination.

15. Fever (in case of strangulated inguinal hernias).

16. Loss of appetite.

17.  Strangulation.

Treatment of hernia

1.      Surgery

Laparoscopic surgery is a modern method to treat a hernia. Small incisions are made at the site to remove the hernia defect. By this procedure, meshes can be placed with minimal injury. It also reduces the recurrence of hernia and prevents the formation of incisional hernia. Post-surgical trauma is less and the patient recovers within a short period of time. It is suitable for groin hernias, as this method can cover almost all the potential sites.

Laser surgery is done for a milder form of hernia, usually to make an incision and separate tissues, but it cannot be used to treat another hernias.  

Mesh prosthesis surgery is a traditional method of surgery in which an incision is made around the region of hernia and after repairing, a synthetic mesh is put in the region to prevent muscle pulling.

2. Belts

Usually, almost all types of hernias require surgery. But in the case of incisional hernias and non-incarcerated hernias belts, hernia trusses can be used to press the tissue overgrowth and to provide relief.

3. Pressure therapy

Pressure therapy is used in case of an incarcerated hernia, but should be done by experienced doctors.

There are no medicines to cure hernia. It is advisable to treat hernia as soon as possible to prevent the formation of gangrene or organ failure.

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