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Ovarian Cysts: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

August 02 2019 at 04:05 AM by Samikshya Joshi

Ovarian cysts are fluid-filled pockets present in the ovary of the female reproductive system. Cyst-like structures called follicles or ovarian cyst are formed every month. Many women develop ovarian cysts at some time of their reproductive phase of life.

Most of the ovarian cysts form as a result of the women’s menstrual cycle called functional cysts. However, they are not life-threatening in nature.

Most of the ovarian cysts that form do not cause any symptoms and get resolved on their own. Nevertheless, ruptured ovarian cysts cause serious symptoms. 

  • Pelvic pain
  • Painful menstruation
  • Difficulty during sexual intercourse
  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Breast tenderness
  • Fullness or heaviness in the abdomen
  • Frequency and difficulty emptying of the bladder
  • Dull ache or pain in the lower back of the abdomen


Ovarian Cyst Complications:

Most of the ovarian cysts are non-cancerous and go away on their own without any treatment. But in some case, your doctor may notice a cancerous cystic ovarian mass during a regular examination.

Ovarian torsion is another rare snag of ovarian cysts. This occurs when a large cyst causes an ovary to twist or move from its original position. It can cause damage or death to the ovarian tissue, if not treated; blood supply to the ovary is cut off. Ruptured cysts, which are also uncommon, can cause severe pain and internal bleeding. This complication increases your menace of an infection and can be life-threatening if left untreated.

 Diagnosis and Treatment:

Diagnosis of cyst on the ovary can be observed during a pelvic examination. Based on the size and whether the cyst has fluid, or it is solid or a combination of both, doctors may recommend tests to determine its type and further requirements for the treatment. Tests such as pregnancy test, pelvic ultrasound, laparoscopy, and CA 125 blood test may be suggested based on the condition.

Treatment depends on various factors like age, the type, and size of the cyst, and developing symptoms.

Doctors may suggest a person be waited watchfully, after a course of medication to see if the size of cyst has reduced and then decide if surgery is required.

Ovarian cyst prevention:

Ovarian cysts can’t be prevented. However, routine gynecologic examinations can detect ovarian cysts early. Benign ovarian cysts don’t become cancerous. Symptoms of ovarian cancer can imitator symptoms of an ovarian cyst. Thus, it’s important to visit your doctor and receive a correct diagnosis. Consult your doctor to symptoms that may signify a crisis, such as:

  • changes in your menstrual cycle
  • ongoing pelvic pain
  • loss of appetite
  • unexplained weight loss
  • abdominal fullness

Treatment for an Ovarian Cyst:

If it doesn’t go away on its own or if it grows larger, your doctor may recommend treatment to minimize or remove the cyst.

Birth control pills:

If you have repeated ovarian cysts, your doctor can recommend oral contraceptive to stop ovulation and avoid the development of new cysts. Oral contraceptives can also lessen the risk of ovarian cancer. In the case of postmenopausal women, the risk of ovarian cancer is higher.


If your cyst is small and results from an imaging test to rule out cancer, your doctor can perform a laparoscopy. to surgically remove the cyst. The method involves your doctor making a tiny cut near your navel and then slotting a small instrument into your abdomen to remove the cyst.


If you have a large cyst, your doctor can surgically remove the cyst through a large opening in your abdomen. They’ll perform an instant biopsy, and if they find out that the cyst is cancerous, they may perform a hysterectomy to take out your ovaries and uterus.

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